Core Concepts

We construct a deterministic quasipolynomial-size hitting set for noncommutative rational formulas, solving the long-standing open problem of designing an efficient deterministic black-box algorithm for rational identity testing.

Abstract

The paper focuses on the problem of rational identity testing (RIT) in the noncommutative setting. RIT is the decision problem of determining whether a given noncommutative rational formula computes the zero function in the free skew field.
Key highlights:
RIT admits a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm in the white-box setting, but designing an efficient deterministic black-box algorithm has been a major open problem.
The authors construct a deterministic quasipolynomial-size hitting set for noncommutative rational formulas of polynomial size, solving the black-box RIT problem.
The hitting set construction uses several technical ideas, including:
Embedding the hitting set in a cyclic division algebra to ensure that nonzero rational formulas evaluate to invertible elements.
Reducing the RIT problem to a special case of the nonsingularity problem for linear matrices over the free skew field, where a witness is provided.
Carefully analyzing the dependence of the division algebra index on the width, degree, and number of variables to obtain the quasipolynomial bound.
As a consequence, the authors also show that RIT is in deterministic quasi-NC in the white-box setting.

Stats

None

Quotes

None

Key Insights Distilled From

Black-Box Identity Testing of Noncommutative Rational Formulas in Deterministic Quasipolynomial Time

by V. Arvind,Ab... at **arxiv.org** 04-09-2024

Deeper Inquiries

The techniques developed in the paper for constructing hitting sets for rational formulas can be extended to obtain deterministic subexponential-time algorithms for rational identity testing by further optimizing the hitting set construction process. One approach could be to improve the efficiency of the division algebra hitting set construction for generalized ABPs. This could involve refining the method of embedding noncommutative ABPs into division algebras and finding ways to reduce the size and complexity of the hitting sets generated. Additionally, exploring new mathematical structures or algorithms that can efficiently handle the properties of rational formulas, such as inversion height and nested inverses, could lead to faster deterministic algorithms for rational identity testing.

The ideas used in the hitting set construction for rational formulas can be applied to other problems in noncommutative algebra and complexity theory. One potential application is in the study of noncommutative polynomial identity testing, where similar techniques could be used to construct hitting sets for noncommutative polynomials computed by algebraic branching programs. Additionally, the concept of division algebra hitting sets could be extended to other areas of computational algebra, such as invariant theory or representation theory, where noncommutative structures play a significant role. By adapting the hitting set construction methodology to different contexts, researchers can potentially solve a wide range of problems in noncommutative algebra and complexity theory.

The quasi-NC upper bound for Rational Identity Testing (RIT) in the white-box setting has significant implications for noncommutative complexity theory. Firstly, it establishes a new complexity class for RIT, indicating that the problem can be solved efficiently in parallel using quasi-NC algorithms. This result opens up possibilities for exploring the parallel complexity of other noncommutative algebraic problems and potentially developing new algorithmic techniques for solving them. Furthermore, the quasi-NC upper bound suggests that RIT in the white-box setting can be efficiently parallelized, leading to advancements in the design of parallel algorithms for noncommutative rational formulas. Overall, this result paves the way for further research in noncommutative complexity theory and parallel computation.

0