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Verifiable Training Method for AI Models with Hardware Control


Core Concepts
Proposing a method to achieve verifiable training by controlling hardware nondeterminism, ensuring correctness and guarding against attacks.
Abstract
The increasing demand for AI systems has led to the emergence of services that train models for clients lacking resources. Verifiable training faces challenges due to potential attacks like data poisoning. Existing methods struggle with scalability or rely on trusted third-party auditors. Hardware nondeterminism between GPU types poses a challenge for replication. A proposed method controls nondeterminism by using higher precision during training and sharing rounding decisions. Experiments show successful replication of training across different NVIDIA GPUs, reducing storage and time costs compared to proof-based systems.
Stats
Across three different NVIDIA GPUs (A40, Titan XP, RTX 2080 Ti), exact training replication at FP32 precision achieved for ResNet-50 (23M) and GPT-2 (117M) models. Proposal in prior work would require >140× more storage cost than the method proposed. Efficient encoding reduces storage requirements by 77%.
Quotes
"We propose a method that combines training in a higher precision than the target model, rounding after intermediate computation steps, and storing rounding decisions based on an adaptive thresholding procedure." "Our verifiable training scheme significantly decreases the storage and time costs compared to proof-based systems."

Deeper Inquiries

How can the proposed method be adapted for other types of neural network architectures

The proposed method can be adapted for other types of neural network architectures by following a similar approach to controlling hardware nondeterminism. The key idea is to train the model at a higher precision than the target model precision and round after intermediate computation steps, while storing rounding decisions based on an adaptive thresholding procedure. This strategy helps absorb errors from floating-point operations due to hardware nondeterminism. To adapt this method for other neural network architectures, one would need to: Determine the appropriate training precision and rounding amount based on the specific architecture and requirements. Implement the logging of rounding decisions during training for each intermediate computation step. Develop an algorithm to find optimal thresholds for different layers or operations within the architecture. Ensure that there is cooperation between trainer and auditor in sharing necessary information such as randomness, model parameters, and checkpointing intervals. By applying these principles to different neural network architectures, it should be possible to achieve verifiable training with controlled hardware nondeterminism across various models.

What are the potential limitations or drawbacks of relying on a trusted third-party auditor for verification

Relying on a trusted third-party auditor for verification in verifiable training schemes has potential limitations and drawbacks: Trust Dependency: The effectiveness of the verification process relies heavily on trusting the auditor's integrity and capabilities. If there are any doubts about the auditor's impartiality or competence, it could undermine confidence in the verification results. Resource Intensive: Engaging a third-party auditor may require additional resources in terms of time, cost, and effort. Coordinating with auditors, sharing data securely, and ensuring compliance with auditing procedures can add complexity to the overall process. Auditor Bias: There is a risk of bias or conflicts of interest if auditors have relationships with either party involved in verifiable training (trainer or client). This bias could impact the objectivity of audit results. Security Concerns: Sharing sensitive information with external auditors raises security concerns regarding data privacy and confidentiality breaches if proper safeguards are not implemented. 5 .Scalability Challenges: As demand for verifiable training grows, finding enough trustworthy auditors capable of performing audits efficiently may become challenging. Overall, while using a trusted third-party auditor can provide independent validation in verifiable training schemes, it is essential to address these limitations through robust protocols, clear guidelines, and transparency measures.

How might advancements in GPU technology impact the effectiveness of controlling hardware nondeterminism in verifiable training schemes

Advancements in GPU technology can significantly impact the effectiveness of controlling hardware nondeterminism in verifiable training schemes: 1 .Improved Deterministic Training: Future GPUs may incorporate features that enhance deterministic behavior across different GPU types, reducing reliance on complex methods like those proposed here 2 .Efficient Parallel Processing: Advancements enabling more consistent parallel processing across GPU architectures could reduce non-deterministic outcomes, 3 .Enhanced Memory Management: Improved memory hierarchy designs might lead to more predictable memory access patterns, minimizing variable delays that contribute to non-deterministic behavior 4 .Optimized Floating-Point Arithmetic Units: Upgrades in floating-point arithmetic units could result in more precise calculations across GPUs, mitigating errors caused by accumulation during computations 5 .Standardization Across Architectures: If future GPU technologies adopt standardized approaches towards parallel computation and memory management , it could lead to greater consistency across different GPU types , reducing variations that cause non-determinism By leveraging advancements in GPU technology , verifiable training schemes can potentially become more efficient , reliable , and scalable over time . This evolution will play a crucial role in enhancing trustworthiness and accountability within AI systems
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