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Dynamic Experienced Expert Modeling for Stance Detection


Core Concepts
Leveraging dynamically generated and filtered experienced experts can substantially improve the performance of large language models on stance detection tasks.
Abstract
The paper proposes a Dynamic Experienced Expert Modeling (DEEM) method for stance detection, which aims to address the limitations of existing approaches that use large language models (LLMs) for this task. The key insights are: Stance detection often requires detailed background knowledge, so the vanilla reasoning method of LLMs may neglect important domain expertise. DEEM first generates diverse experts by leveraging the training data, then filters the experienced experts based on their occurrence numbers and response accuracy. During inference, DEEM retrieves the relevant experienced experts for the new input sentence and uses them to guide the LLM's reasoning process. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets show that DEEM consistently outperforms other methods, including those that use self-consistency reasoning or fixed expert prompts. DEEM also demonstrates potential in reducing the bias of LLMs on neutral stance samples. The paper also provides analyses on the distributions of generated experts, the impact of filtering strategies, and the effectiveness of dynamic expert modeling compared to fixed experts or self-consistency reasoning.
Stats
The paper reports F1-scores on three stance detection datasets: P-Stance: F1 scores of 83.7, 86.0, 80.4 for Donald Trump, Joe Biden, and Bernie Sanders, respectively. SemEval-2016: F1 scores of 85.7, 80.5, 81.7 for Hillary Clinton, Donald Trump, and Donald Trump-Hillary Clinton. MTSD: F1 scores of 81.7, 80.7, 83.5 for Donald Trump-Hillary Clinton, Donald Trump-Ted Cruz, and Hillary Clinton-Bernie Sanders.
Quotes
"Stance detection (Hasan and Ng, 2014; Küçük and Can, 2020) is a natural language processing (NLP) task that automatically identifies the stance towards a specific target in a given text." "Inspired by the wisdom of crowds in sociological theory (Minsky, 1988; Piaget, 2013), we intuitively propose designing multiple capable experts to collaborate in order to come up with a comprehensive stance prediction."

Key Insights Distilled From

by Xiaolong Wan... at arxiv.org 04-26-2024

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2402.15264.pdf
DEEM: Dynamic Experienced Expert Modeling for Stance Detection

Deeper Inquiries

How can the DEEM method be extended to handle more complex or multi-faceted stance detection tasks, such as those involving implicit biases or nuanced perspectives?

The DEEM method can be extended to handle more complex or multi-faceted stance detection tasks by incorporating additional layers of expertise and refining the filtering process. Here are some ways to enhance the DEEM method for such tasks: Incorporating Diverse Perspectives: Introduce a wider range of experts representing diverse viewpoints, ideologies, and backgrounds to capture nuanced perspectives. This can help in detecting implicit biases and understanding subtle nuances in the text. Fine-tuning Expert Selection: Develop more sophisticated heuristic rules for filtering experienced experts based on factors like contextual relevance, sentiment analysis, and domain-specific knowledge. This can improve the accuracy and reliability of the selected experts. Contextual Understanding: Enhance the retrieval mechanism to consider the context of the text more comprehensively. This can involve analyzing the relationships between different experts, identifying conflicting viewpoints, and resolving ambiguities in the stance detection process. Multi-layered Expert Modeling: Implement a multi-layered expert modeling approach where experts can collaborate, debate, and provide counterarguments to offer a more comprehensive analysis of the stance towards a specific target. This can help in handling complex and multi-faceted tasks effectively. Integration of Ethical Considerations: Incorporate ethical guidelines and principles into the expert selection process to ensure that the generated responses are unbiased, fair, and respectful of diverse perspectives. This can help in addressing implicit biases and promoting ethical stance detection practices. By incorporating these enhancements, the DEEM method can be tailored to handle more complex stance detection tasks involving implicit biases, nuanced perspectives, and diverse viewpoints effectively.

How can the potential limitations or drawbacks of relying on dynamically generated experts be addressed, and how could these be addressed in future work?

While relying on dynamically generated experts offers several advantages, there are potential limitations and drawbacks that need to be addressed. Here are some strategies to mitigate these challenges: Expert Quality Assurance: Implement a validation mechanism to assess the quality and reliability of dynamically generated experts. This can involve human oversight, expert reviews, or automated checks to ensure that the experts provide accurate and relevant insights. Continuous Learning and Adaptation: Develop a feedback loop system where the performance of the generated experts is continuously monitored, and the model is updated based on new data and insights. This iterative process can help in improving the expertise and reliability of the generated experts over time. Domain-specific Expertise: Enhance the expert generation process by incorporating domain-specific knowledge and expertise. This can involve training the model on domain-specific datasets, fine-tuning the experts for specific tasks, and ensuring that the generated experts have a deep understanding of the subject matter. Bias Detection and Mitigation: Implement bias detection algorithms to identify and mitigate any biases present in the generated experts. This can involve analyzing the responses for biased language, stereotypes, or discriminatory content and taking corrective actions to address these issues. Transparency and Explainability: Ensure transparency in the expert generation process by providing explanations for why certain experts were selected and how they contribute to the stance detection task. This can help in building trust in the model and understanding the decision-making process. By addressing these limitations and drawbacks through quality assurance, continuous learning, domain-specific expertise, bias detection, and transparency, the reliability and effectiveness of relying on dynamically generated experts can be enhanced in future work.

Given the promising results on reducing bias, how could the DEEM approach be applied to other language modeling tasks to improve fairness and mitigate undesirable biases?

The DEEM approach's success in reducing bias in stance detection tasks can be extended to other language modeling tasks to improve fairness and mitigate undesirable biases. Here are some ways the DEEM approach could be applied in different contexts: Sentiment Analysis: Implement the DEEM method in sentiment analysis tasks to detect and mitigate biases in sentiment classification. By leveraging diverse experts and dynamic retrieval mechanisms, the model can provide more balanced and unbiased sentiment predictions. Hate Speech Detection: Apply the DEEM approach to hate speech detection tasks to identify and address biases in language models' responses. By incorporating experts from diverse backgrounds and perspectives, the model can better recognize and mitigate harmful language patterns. Fact-Checking: Utilize the DEEM method in fact-checking tasks to verify the accuracy of information and reduce misinformation biases. By involving experts with fact-checking expertise and dynamically retrieving relevant experts, the model can improve the reliability of fact-checking processes. Ethical AI Applications: Deploy the DEEM approach in ethical AI applications to ensure fairness, transparency, and accountability in decision-making processes. By integrating ethical experts and bias detection mechanisms, the model can promote ethical behavior and mitigate biases in AI systems. Content Moderation: Implement the DEEM method in content moderation tasks to identify and address biases in content classification and filtering. By leveraging diverse experts and expert filtering strategies, the model can enhance fairness and reduce undesirable biases in content moderation practices. By applying the DEEM approach to a wide range of language modeling tasks and contexts, it is possible to improve fairness, reduce biases, and enhance the ethical standards of AI systems across various applications.
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