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Comprehensive Survey on Hallucination Challenges in Large Vision-Language Models


Core Concepts
Hallucinations, or misalignment between visual content and textual generation, pose a significant challenge in the practical deployment of Large Vision-Language Models (LVLMs). This comprehensive survey aims to establish an overview of LVLM hallucinations and facilitate future mitigation efforts.
Abstract
This survey provides a detailed analysis of hallucinations in Large Vision-Language Models (LVLMs). It starts by clarifying the concept of hallucinations in LVLMs, presenting various hallucination symptoms and highlighting the unique challenges inherent in LVLM hallucinations. The authors then outline the benchmarks and methodologies tailored specifically for evaluating hallucinations unique to LVLMs. These include both discriminative and generative evaluation approaches, focusing on assessing the model's ability to generate non-hallucinatory content and discriminate hallucinations, respectively. Furthermore, the survey delves into an investigation of the root causes of LVLM hallucinations, encompassing insights from the training data, vision encoders, modality alignment modules, and language models. The authors critically review existing methods for mitigating hallucinations, which target these various causes. Finally, the survey discusses the open questions and future directions pertaining to hallucinations within LVLMs, highlighting areas such as supervision objectives, enriching modalities, LVLMs as agents, and improving interpretability.
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Key Insights Distilled From

by Hanchao Liu,... at arxiv.org 05-07-2024

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2402.00253.pdf
A Survey on Hallucination in Large Vision-Language Models

Deeper Inquiries

What are the potential long-term implications of unmitigated hallucinations in LVLMs, and how might they impact the broader adoption and trust in these models

Unmitigated hallucinations in Large Vision-Language Models (LVLMs) can have significant long-term implications that may hinder their broader adoption and trust in various applications. One major consequence is the potential for misinformation and inaccuracies in the generated outputs, leading to a loss of credibility and reliability in the model's responses. In fields where precise and accurate information is crucial, such as medical diagnosis or autonomous driving, the presence of hallucinations can result in serious errors with potentially harmful outcomes. This could impede the widespread adoption of LVLMs in critical applications where trust and accuracy are paramount. Moreover, unmitigated hallucinations can also impact the interpretability and explainability of LVLMs. If the model consistently produces hallucinatory content, it becomes challenging for users to understand the reasoning behind the generated outputs. Lack of transparency in the decision-making process can lead to skepticism and reluctance to rely on LVLMs for important tasks. Furthermore, the presence of hallucinations may raise ethical concerns, especially in sensitive domains where decisions based on LVLM outputs can have profound implications on individuals or society. Issues related to bias, fairness, and accountability may be exacerbated if hallucinations are not effectively addressed, potentially leading to unintended consequences and societal harm. Overall, unmitigated hallucinations in LVLMs can undermine the trust, reliability, and ethical use of these models, limiting their adoption in critical applications and hindering their potential to positively impact various industries and domains.

How might the mitigation of hallucinations in LVLMs inform the development of more robust and reliable multimodal AI systems in other domains, such as robotics or healthcare

The mitigation of hallucinations in LVLMs can serve as a valuable blueprint for developing more robust and reliable multimodal AI systems in other domains, such as robotics or healthcare. By addressing the challenges associated with hallucinations in LVLMs, researchers can uncover insights and strategies that can be applied to enhance the performance and trustworthiness of multimodal systems in diverse applications. One key lesson from mitigating hallucinations in LVLMs is the importance of comprehensive data annotation and supervision. By enriching training data with detailed and relevant annotations, researchers can improve the model's understanding of multimodal inputs and reduce the risk of hallucinations. This approach can be translated to robotics, where multimodal systems need to interpret and respond to complex environmental cues accurately. Additionally, the development of advanced connection modules and alignment techniques in LVLMs can inform the design of more effective integration strategies for multimodal AI systems in robotics or healthcare. Ensuring seamless alignment between different modalities, such as vision and language, can enhance the overall performance and reliability of these systems in real-world scenarios. Furthermore, the exploration of post-processing methods and decoding optimization in LVLMs can inspire innovative approaches to refine outputs and enhance the interpretability of multimodal AI systems in other domains. By focusing on refining and validating generated outputs, researchers can improve the trustworthiness and usability of multimodal systems in critical applications. In essence, the mitigation of hallucinations in LVLMs can provide valuable insights and methodologies that can be leveraged to develop more robust and reliable multimodal AI systems across various domains, contributing to advancements in technology and enhancing the capabilities of AI-driven solutions.

Given the inherent challenges in fully eliminating hallucinations, what alternative approaches or paradigm shifts might be explored to enable LVLMs to operate safely and effectively in real-world applications

Given the inherent challenges in fully eliminating hallucinations in LVLMs, alternative approaches and paradigm shifts can be explored to enable these models to operate safely and effectively in real-world applications. One alternative approach is to implement robust validation and verification mechanisms that continuously monitor the model's outputs for signs of hallucinations. By integrating feedback loops and validation checks, researchers can detect and correct hallucinatory content in real-time, reducing the impact of errors on downstream tasks. Another paradigm shift involves incorporating human oversight and intervention in the decision-making process of LVLMs. By involving human experts in verifying critical outputs and providing corrective feedback, the model's performance can be enhanced, and the risk of hallucinations can be mitigated. This human-in-the-loop approach ensures that the model's outputs align with human expectations and domain knowledge, improving overall reliability and trust. Furthermore, exploring hybrid models that combine the strengths of LVLMs with rule-based systems or expert knowledge can offer a complementary approach to mitigating hallucinations. By integrating domain-specific rules and constraints into the model's decision-making process, researchers can guide the model towards more accurate and reliable outputs, reducing the likelihood of hallucinations in critical tasks. Additionally, focusing on explainability and transparency in LVLMs can help users understand the model's reasoning and decision-making process, enabling them to identify and address potential hallucinations effectively. By providing interpretable outputs and insights into the model's inner workings, researchers can enhance trust and confidence in the model's capabilities, even in the presence of occasional hallucinations. Overall, by exploring alternative approaches and paradigm shifts, researchers can work towards enabling LVLMs to operate safely and effectively in real-world applications, mitigating the impact of hallucinations and improving the overall reliability and trustworthiness of these models.
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