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Efficient Grid-Drawings of Graphs in Three Dimensions


Core Concepts
Using probabilistic methods, the authors obtain grid-drawings of graphs without crossings with low volume and small aspect ratio. They show that every D-degenerate graph on n vertices can be drawn in a [m]^3 grid where m = O(D^(5/3)n^(1/3)log^(4/3)n). In particular, every graph of bounded maximum degree can be drawn in a grid with volume O(n log^4 n).
Abstract
The authors study the problem of efficiently constructing grid-drawings of graphs in three dimensions. Grid-drawings are representations of graphs where vertices are distinct points in a d-dimensional integer grid and edges are straight-line segments. Key highlights: The authors use probabilistic methods to obtain grid-drawings of graphs without edge crossings, with low volume and small aspect ratio. They prove that every D-degenerate graph on n vertices can be drawn in a [m]^3 grid, where m = O(D^(5/3)n^(1/3)log^(4/3)n). This result implies that every graph of bounded maximum degree can be drawn in a grid with volume O(n log^4 n). The authors also show that every planar graph can be drawn in a grid with all sides O(n^(1/3)log^(4/3)n), resolving an open problem. The proofs rely on carefully counting the number of collinear and coplanar tuples of points in integer grids. The authors discuss open problems, including improving the dependence on the degeneracy parameter D and removing the logarithmic factors, as well as determining the minimum grid size required for drawing complete bipartite graphs.
Stats
Every D-degenerate graph on n vertices can be drawn in a [m]^3 grid where m = O(D^(5/3)n^(1/3)log^(4/3)n). Every graph of bounded maximum degree can be drawn in a grid with volume O(n log^4 n).
Quotes
"Using probabilistic methods, we obtain grid-drawings of graphs without crossings with low volume and small aspect ratio." "We show that every D-degenerate graph on n vertices can be drawn in [m]^3 where m = O(D^(5/3)n^(1/3)log^(4/3)n)." "In particular, every graph of bounded maximum degree can be drawn in a grid with volume O(n log^4 n)."

Key Insights Distilled From

by Jozsef Balog... at arxiv.org 04-04-2024

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2404.02369.pdf
Grid-drawings of graphs in three-dimensions

Deeper Inquiries

What other graph parameters, beyond degeneracy and maximum degree, could be used to obtain improved grid-drawing bounds

In addition to degeneracy and maximum degree, other graph parameters that could potentially lead to improved grid-drawing bounds include path-width, genus, and chromatic number. Path-width, for instance, measures how close a graph is to being a tree, and graphs with low path-width may have more efficient grid-drawings due to their structural properties. Genus, which relates to the surface on which a graph can be embedded without crossings, could also impact the grid-drawing bounds. Furthermore, the chromatic number, indicating the minimum number of colors needed to color the vertices of a graph so that no adjacent vertices share the same color, might offer insights into grid-drawing optimizations based on color assignments.

Can the dependence on the degeneracy parameter D in the main result be further improved, or is the current bound tight

The dependence on the degeneracy parameter D in the main result could potentially be further improved by exploring more refined probabilistic methods or by incorporating advanced combinatorial techniques. While the current bound in the main theorem is a significant improvement over previous results, there might be room for refinement by delving deeper into the intricacies of graph embeddings in three dimensions. It is essential to analyze the trade-offs between the degeneracy parameter and other graph properties to determine if the current bound is tight or if further enhancements are feasible.

How do the techniques developed in this work relate to the problem of determining the minimum grid size required for drawing complete bipartite graphs

The techniques developed in this work, particularly the randomized algorithm presented, can be adapted to address the problem of determining the minimum grid size required for drawing complete bipartite graphs. By modifying the algorithm to suit the specific characteristics of complete bipartite graphs, such as their inherent bipartite structure and connectivity properties, it may be possible to establish bounds on the grid size needed for their optimal grid-drawings. Leveraging the insights gained from studying degeneracy and other graph parameters, a tailored approach can be devised to tackle the unique challenges posed by complete bipartite graphs in the context of grid-drawings.
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