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Enhancing Trust in Healthcare through Interpretable AI Systems: A Systematic Review of Processes, Methods, and Challenges


Core Concepts
This paper provides a comprehensive review of the processes, methods, and challenges associated with implementing interpretable machine learning (IML) and explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) within healthcare and medical domains, with the goal of improving communication and trust between AI systems and clinicians.
Abstract
The paper systematically reviews the processes and challenges of IML and XAI in healthcare and medical applications. It categorizes the IML process into three levels: pre-processing interpretability, interpretable modeling, and post-processing interpretability. Key highlights: Explores the importance of interpretability and transparency in healthcare decision-making, where inaccurate predictions could lead to serious consequences. Discusses the trade-offs between accuracy and interpretability, and the need to balance these factors in healthcare AI systems. Examines current approaches to interpretability, including inherent explainability and post-processing explainability methods, and their limitations. Proposes a comprehensive framework for the interpretability process, covering data pre-processing, model selection, and post-processing interpretability. Reviews the application of IML and XAI in various healthcare technologies, such as medical sensors, wearables, telemedicine, and large language models. Provides a step-by-step roadmap for implementing XAI in clinical settings and discusses key challenges and future directions. The paper aims to foster a deeper understanding of the significance of a robust interpretability approach in clinical decision support systems and provide insights for creating more communicable and trustworthy clinician-AI tools.
Stats
"Artificial intelligence (AI)-based medical devices and digital health technologies, including medical sensors, wearable health trackers, telemedicine, mobile health (mHealth), large language models (LLMs), and digital care twins (DCTs), significantly influence the process of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) in healthcare and medical applications." "Modern AI systems face challenges in providing easily understandable explanations for their decisions due to the complexity of their algorithms, which can lead to mistrust among end-users, especially in critical fields such as healthcare and medicine." "Interpretability offers several advantages, including helping users find clear patterns in ML models, enabling users to understand the reasons behind inaccurate predictions, building trust among end-users in model predictions, empowering users to detect bias in ML models, and providing an added safety measure against overfitting."
Quotes
"Transparency and explainability are essential for AI implementation in healthcare settings, as inaccurate decision-making, such as disease predictions, could lead to serious challenges." "Explainability transcends academic interest; it will become a crucial aspect of future AI applications in healthcare and medicine, affecting the daily lives of millions of caregivers and patients." "Explanations alone may not give all the answers, but that does not imply blind trust in AI predictions. It is imperative to meticulously confirm AI systems for safety and effectiveness, akin to the evaluation process for drugs and medical devices."

Key Insights Distilled From

by Elham Nasari... at arxiv.org 04-11-2024

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2311.11055.pdf
Designing Interpretable ML System to Enhance Trust in Healthcare

Deeper Inquiries

How can we ensure that the interpretability techniques used in healthcare AI systems are reliable, unbiased, and provide meaningful insights to clinicians and patients?

In order to ensure that interpretability techniques in healthcare AI systems are reliable, unbiased, and provide meaningful insights, several key considerations need to be taken into account: Transparency and Explainability: It is essential that the AI algorithms and models used in healthcare are transparent and explainable. Clinicians and patients should be able to understand how the AI arrived at a particular decision or recommendation. This transparency helps build trust and confidence in the AI system. Validation and Testing: Interpretability techniques should undergo rigorous validation and testing to ensure their accuracy and reliability. This includes testing the techniques on diverse datasets, including real-world healthcare data, to assess their performance in different scenarios. Bias Detection and Mitigation: AI systems are prone to biases, which can lead to unfair or inaccurate outcomes. Interpretability techniques should include mechanisms to detect and mitigate biases in the data and the algorithms. This helps ensure that the insights provided are unbiased and fair. Human-in-the-Loop: Incorporating a human-in-the-loop approach can enhance the interpretability of AI systems. By involving clinicians and patients in the interpretation process, the insights generated by the AI can be validated and contextualized, making them more meaningful and actionable. Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Collaboration between data scientists, healthcare professionals, ethicists, and legal experts is crucial in developing and implementing interpretability techniques in healthcare AI systems. This interdisciplinary approach ensures that the techniques are aligned with ethical standards, legal requirements, and the needs of clinicians and patients. By following these guidelines and incorporating best practices in interpretability techniques, healthcare AI systems can provide reliable, unbiased, and meaningful insights to clinicians and patients, ultimately improving the quality of care and patient outcomes.

How can the integration of interpretable AI with other emerging technologies, such as digital twins and large language models, enhance the overall effectiveness and trustworthiness of healthcare decision support systems?

The integration of interpretable AI with other emerging technologies like digital twins and large language models can significantly enhance the effectiveness and trustworthiness of healthcare decision support systems in the following ways: Improved Communication: Interpretable AI techniques can help explain the decisions and recommendations generated by digital twins and large language models in a more understandable manner to clinicians and patients. This enhanced communication fosters trust and confidence in the AI system. Enhanced Decision-Making: By integrating interpretable AI, healthcare decision support systems can provide clinicians with clear insights into the reasoning behind the recommendations made by digital twins and large language models. This transparency enables clinicians to make more informed and confident decisions. Bias Detection and Mitigation: Interpretable AI techniques can help identify biases in the data and algorithms used by digital twins and large language models. By detecting and mitigating biases, the overall trustworthiness of the decision support system is improved, leading to more reliable outcomes. Personalized Healthcare: The integration of interpretable AI with digital twins allows for personalized healthcare recommendations based on individual patient data. Clinicians can better understand the rationale behind these personalized recommendations, leading to more effective treatment plans. Compliance and Accountability: By providing interpretable insights into the decision-making process of digital twins and large language models, healthcare systems can ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and ethical standards. This transparency enhances accountability and trust in the system. Overall, the integration of interpretable AI with digital twins and large language models can enhance the effectiveness and trustworthiness of healthcare decision support systems by improving communication, decision-making, bias detection, personalized healthcare, and compliance with regulations.
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