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Cendol: Open-Source Instruction-Tuned Language Models for Indonesian and Local Languages


Core Concepts
Cendol is a collection of state-of-the-art Indonesian large language models that outperform existing multilingual, Southeast Asian, and Indonesian LLMs by around 20% on various NLP tasks. Cendol models showcase improved human favorability and generalization capability to unseen tasks and indigenous languages of Indonesia.
Abstract
The content introduces Cendol, a collection of Indonesian large language models (LLMs) that encompass both decoder-only and encoder-decoder architectures across a range of model sizes. Cendol is developed through large-scale instruction tuning, covering a diverse array of tasks, languages, and prompts. The key highlights include: Cendol outperforms existing multilingual, Southeast Asian, and Indonesian LLMs by around 20% on various NLP tasks, showcasing the effectiveness of large-scale instruction tuning. Cendol models demonstrate the ability to generalize to unseen tasks and indigenous languages of Indonesia, although there is a significant performance drop compared to seen tasks and languages. The content discusses the ineffectiveness of parameter-efficient tuning approaches, such as LoRA, in achieving high-quality regional LLMs, prompting the consideration of more efficient tuning methods like vocabulary adaptation. The safety of Cendol models is evaluated, and it is found that safety in pre-training in one language (English) is transferable to low-resource languages like Indonesian, even without RLHF and safety fine-tuning. The content also highlights the limitations of Cendol models in capturing local knowledge and cultural values in Indonesia, as well as the need for better human alignment through reinforcement learning techniques.
Stats
Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world, with around 280 million people spread across more than 17,000 islands. Indonesia has the fourth largest internet user base in the world, with ~220 million users. Cendol Collection covers a total of ~53.5M prompts, including NLP task-based prompts (41M), Indonesian general knowledge prompts (6.2M), local language generative prompts (6.3M), and human-aligned prompts (8.2K).
Quotes
"To bridge this quality gap, we introduce Cendol, a collection of Indonesian LLMs encompassing both decoder-only and encoder-decoder architectures across a range of model sizes." "We highlight Cendol's effectiveness across a diverse array of tasks, attaining ∼20% improvement, and demonstrate its capability to generalize to unseen tasks and indigenous languages of Indonesia." "We demonstrate the ineffectiveness of parameter-efficient tuning approaches, exemplified by LoRA (Hu et al., 2022), in achieving high-quality regional LLMs. This prompts a consideration of the significance of parameter-efficient methods for language adaptation."

Key Insights Distilled From

by Samuel Cahya... at arxiv.org 04-10-2024

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2404.06138.pdf
Cendol

Deeper Inquiries

How can the Cendol models be further improved to better capture local knowledge and cultural values in Indonesia?

To enhance the Cendol models' ability to capture local knowledge and cultural values in Indonesia, several strategies can be implemented: Diverse Dataset Inclusion: Incorporating a more diverse range of datasets that specifically focus on Indonesian local languages, traditions, and cultural nuances can help the models better understand and reflect the unique aspects of the local culture. Community Engagement: Collaborating with local experts, linguists, and community members can provide valuable insights into the intricacies of Indonesian culture, ensuring that the models are culturally sensitive and accurate in their representations. Fine-Tuning with Local Prompts: Implementing fine-tuning techniques with a focus on local prompts that contain cultural references, idiomatic expressions, and context-specific information can help the models learn to generate responses that align with Indonesian cultural values. Human Evaluation: Conducting regular human evaluations with a diverse group of Indonesian speakers to assess the models' performance in capturing local knowledge and cultural nuances can provide valuable feedback for further refinement. Multi-Modal Data Integration: Incorporating multi-modal data, such as images, videos, and audio recordings, alongside text data can offer a more comprehensive understanding of Indonesian culture and enhance the models' ability to capture cultural values. By implementing these strategies, the Cendol models can be further improved to accurately capture local knowledge and cultural values in Indonesia.

How can the potential drawbacks or limitations of using parameter-efficient tuning methods like LoRA for language adaptation be addressed?

Parameter-efficient tuning methods like LoRA may have certain drawbacks and limitations that can be addressed through the following approaches: Hybrid Approach: Combining parameter-efficient tuning methods like LoRA with traditional fine-tuning techniques can help mitigate the limitations of each approach. By leveraging the strengths of both methods, a more balanced and effective tuning process can be achieved. Iterative Tuning: Implementing an iterative tuning process where the model is fine-tuned multiple times with varying hyperparameters and tuning strategies can help optimize the performance and efficiency of the model. Regular Evaluation: Conducting regular evaluations at each tuning stage to assess the model's performance and identify areas for improvement can guide the tuning process and ensure that the model is continuously optimized. Data Augmentation: Augmenting the training data with additional diverse and relevant datasets can help address the limitations of parameter-efficient tuning methods by providing the model with a more comprehensive understanding of the language and context. Transfer Learning: Leveraging transfer learning techniques to pre-train the model on a larger, more diverse dataset before applying parameter-efficient tuning methods can enhance the model's adaptability and performance. By incorporating these approaches, the potential drawbacks and limitations of using parameter-efficient tuning methods like LoRA for language adaptation can be effectively addressed, leading to improved model performance and efficiency.

How can the safety evaluation of Cendol models be made more culturally relevant and sensitive to the Indonesian context, beyond translating existing English safety corpora?

To make the safety evaluation of Cendol models more culturally relevant and sensitive to the Indonesian context, the following strategies can be implemented: Local Expert Involvement: Engaging local experts, linguists, and cultural advisors in the safety evaluation process can provide valuable insights into the cultural nuances and sensitivities specific to Indonesia, ensuring that the evaluation criteria are aligned with local values and norms. Creation of Indigenous Safety Corpora: Developing indigenous safety corpora that are specifically tailored to address safety concerns and cultural sensitivities unique to Indonesia can enhance the relevance and accuracy of the safety evaluation. Cultural Sensitivity Training: Providing cultural sensitivity training to annotators and evaluators involved in the safety evaluation can help them better understand and navigate the cultural intricacies of Indonesian society, enabling them to make more informed judgments. Contextual Analysis: Conducting a contextual analysis of safety prompts and responses to identify and address any cultural biases, stereotypes, or inappropriate content that may arise during the evaluation process. Community Feedback: Seeking feedback from the Indonesian community through surveys, focus groups, or community forums can offer valuable perspectives on safety concerns and cultural considerations that should be taken into account during the evaluation. By implementing these strategies, the safety evaluation of Cendol models can be enhanced to be more culturally relevant and sensitive to the Indonesian context, ensuring that the models adhere to local cultural norms and values.
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