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Ranking Large Language Models without Ground Truth: A Novel Perspective

Core Concepts
The authors propose a novel approach to rank large language models without relying on ground truth or reference responses, using triplets of models to identify the worst performer with high probability.
In this paper, the authors address the challenge of evaluating and ranking large language models (LLMs) without access to ground truth data. They introduce a unique method that leverages triplets of models to determine rankings based on evaluations by each other. By analyzing different generative tasks like summarization, multiple-choice, and dialog, they demonstrate the effectiveness of their approach in recovering accurate rankings without reference data. The study highlights the potential for a low-resource mechanism for practical use in ranking LLMs. The paper discusses the limitations of existing evaluation methods that rely on human responses or pre-defined metrics and benchmarks. It introduces a new perspective where LLMs evaluate each other to serve as proxies for human preferences. The proposed method aims to reduce the effort required for evaluation while providing reliable rankings for various tasks. The experiments conducted on different tasks show promising results, with the proposed methods outperforming traditional approaches like most common answer (MCA). The study also delves into theoretical analyses regarding conditions for success and time complexity of the algorithms used. Overall, this research offers a fresh insight into evaluating and ranking LLMs without ground truth data, paving the way for more efficient and reliable assessment methods in natural language processing.
"In experiments on different generative tasks (summarization, multiple-choice, and dialog), our methods reliably recover close to true rankings without reference data." "We gather responses from 40 LLMs for 3000 instances from HELM." "For discrete responses that are easy to consolidate, such as single token responses in multiple choice, the most common answer is also likely to be the right answer."
"We provide a novel perspective where we rank large language models without access to any ground truth or reference responses." "Our triplet approach ranks M3 as the worst model with high probability." "The core idea stems from real-life intuition that an expert should be able distinguish between a knowledgeable person and a novice."

Key Insights Distilled From

by Amit Dhurand... at 03-08-2024
Ranking Large Language Models without Ground Truth

Deeper Inquiries

How can this method be adapted for evaluating LLMs in specialized domains like law or medicine?

In specialized domains like law or medicine, the method proposed in the research paper can be adapted by tailoring the evaluation criteria and prompts to suit the specific requirements of these fields. For instance, in legal contexts, prompts could involve analyzing case studies or legal documents, while medical evaluations may focus on interpreting patient data or medical literature. The models would then generate responses based on these domain-specific prompts. To adapt the method for evaluating LLMs in specialized domains: Customized Prompts: Develop prompts that are relevant to the specific domain, such as legal cases or medical diagnoses. Domain-Specific Evaluation Metrics: Use metrics tailored to each field's requirements; for example, legal accuracy metrics for law and medical knowledge assessment tools for healthcare. Expert Involvement: Incorporate domain experts who can provide insights into what constitutes a correct response within that field. Dataset Creation: Curate datasets with examples from real-world scenarios encountered in law or medicine to ensure relevance and practicality.

What implications does this research have for improving trustworthiness in large language models?

The research has significant implications for enhancing trustworthiness in large language models (LLMs) by providing a systematic approach to evaluate them without relying on ground truth data. By using a triplet-based ranking system where models judge each other iteratively, it offers a low-resource mechanism to rank LLMs accurately across various tasks without human annotations. Implications include: Reduced Reliance on Human Annotations: Eliminating the need for extensive human-labeled data makes model evaluation more scalable and cost-effective. Objective Ranking Mechanism: The method provides an objective way to compare LLM performance without bias introduced by human judges. Continuous Model Assessment: Enables continuous monitoring of model performance even as new models are developed and existing ones evolve. Enhanced Transparency: By offering a transparent ranking process based on model interactions rather than subjective judgments.

How might incorporating additional information or larger sets of judges impact the effectiveness of this ranking approach?

Incorporating additional information or larger sets of judges could impact the effectiveness of this ranking approach positively by providing more diverse perspectives and reducing biases inherent in smaller sample sizes: 1-Diverse Perspectives - More judges mean varied viewpoints which can lead to robust rankings reflecting different aspects of model performance. 2-Consensus Building - Larger sets allow consensus-building among judges leading to more reliable rankings. 3-Model Differentiation - Additional information about model characteristics can help differentiate between closely performing models effectively 4-Scalability Challenges - However, scaling up may introduce challenges related to computational resources required and increased complexity during decision-making processes. Overall, incorporating additional information and expanding judge pools could enhance accuracy but must be balanced with scalability considerations when implementing this ranking approach at scale."