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Comprehensive Multilingual Benchmarking of State-of-the-Art Large Language Models Across Languages, Modalities, and Tasks


Core Concepts
This study performs a thorough evaluation of the non-English capabilities of state-of-the-art large language models (GPT-3.5-Turbo, GPT-4, PaLM2, Gemini-Pro, Mistral, Llama2, and Gemma) by comparing them on the same set of multilingual datasets covering 83 languages, including low-resource African languages. It also includes multimodal datasets and compares the performance of LLaVA models, GPT-4-Vision, and Gemini-Pro-Vision. The experiments show that larger models like GPT-4, Gemini-Pro, and PaLM2 outperform smaller models on various tasks, notably on low-resource languages, with GPT-4 outperforming PaLM2 and Gemini-Pro on more datasets. The study also finds that several models are likely to be contaminated with multilingual evaluation benchmarks, necessitating approaches to detect and handle contamination while assessing the multilingual performance of large language models.
Abstract
This study aims to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the non-English capabilities of state-of-the-art large language models (LLMs) by comparing their performance on a diverse set of multilingual datasets. Key highlights: The benchmark covers 22 datasets spanning 83 languages, including many low-resource African languages. Nine new SOTA text LLMs are benchmarked, including PaLM2, Llama2, Mistral, Gemma, and Gemini-Pro, in addition to GPT-4 and GPT-3.5-Turbo. Multimodal LLMs like LLaVA, GPT-4-Vision, and Gemini-Pro-Vision are evaluated on two multilingual multimodal datasets. A thorough contamination study is conducted on both commercial and open-source LLMs, revealing that several models are likely contaminated with the evaluation datasets. The overall trends show that larger models like GPT-4, Gemini-Pro, and PaLM2 outperform smaller models, especially on low-resource languages. However, there are still significant performance gaps across language families and tasks. The study highlights the importance of comprehensive multilingual evaluation and the need to address dataset contamination to accurately assess the capabilities of large language models.
Stats
GPT-4 outperforms PaLM2 and Gemini-Pro on more datasets. Larger models like GPT-4, Gemini-Pro, and PaLM2 outperform smaller models on various tasks, notably on low-resource languages. Several models are likely to be contaminated with multilingual evaluation benchmarks, necessitating approaches to detect and handle contamination.
Quotes
"GPT-4 outperforms PaLM2 and Gemini-Pro on more datasets." "Larger models like GPT-4, Gemini-Pro, and PaLM2 outperform smaller models on various tasks, notably on low-resource languages." "Several models are likely to be contaminated with multilingual evaluation benchmarks, necessitating approaches to detect and handle contamination."

Key Insights Distilled From

by Sanchit Ahuj... at arxiv.org 04-04-2024

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2311.07463.pdf
MEGAVERSE

Deeper Inquiries

What strategies can be employed to mitigate the impact of dataset contamination on the accurate assessment of large language model capabilities?

To mitigate the impact of dataset contamination on the accurate assessment of large language model capabilities, several strategies can be employed: Careful Dataset Curation: Ensuring that datasets used for evaluation are clean and free from contamination is crucial. Curating datasets from diverse sources and verifying the data integrity can help reduce the risk of contamination. Cross-Validation: Implementing cross-validation techniques where the model is trained and tested on different subsets of the data can help detect and mitigate the effects of contamination. This ensures that the model's performance is robust across different data splits. Contamination Detection Algorithms: Developing algorithms that can detect patterns of contamination in the training data can be beneficial. These algorithms can flag instances where the model may have been exposed to contaminated data. Prompting Strategies: Using appropriate prompting strategies during evaluation, such as translate-test or zero-shot cross-lingual prompting, can help assess the model's true multilingual capabilities without relying on potentially contaminated data. Independent Evaluation: Conducting independent evaluations by different research groups or organizations can provide additional validation and help identify any discrepancies or inconsistencies that may arise from dataset contamination. Transparency and Documentation: Maintaining transparency in the dataset collection process and documenting any potential sources of contamination can help researchers and practitioners understand the limitations of the evaluation results. By implementing these strategies, researchers can minimize the impact of dataset contamination and ensure a more accurate assessment of large language model capabilities.

How can the performance gaps across language families and tasks be addressed to develop more equitable and inclusive large language models?

To address performance gaps across language families and tasks and develop more equitable and inclusive large language models, the following approaches can be considered: Diverse Training Data: Ensuring that training data is diverse and representative of different language families and tasks can help improve model performance across a wide range of scenarios. Fine-Tuning and Transfer Learning: Implementing fine-tuning and transfer learning techniques specific to different language families and tasks can help tailor the model's capabilities to better suit the linguistic nuances and requirements of each scenario. Language-Specific Models: Developing language-specific models or models optimized for specific language families can help bridge the performance gaps and enhance the model's effectiveness for underrepresented languages. Task-Specific Architectures: Designing task-specific architectures that are optimized for different types of tasks, such as translation, summarization, or sentiment analysis, can improve the model's performance on diverse tasks. Continuous Evaluation and Feedback: Regularly evaluating model performance across language families and tasks and incorporating feedback from diverse user groups can help identify areas for improvement and guide the development of more inclusive models. Collaborative Research: Collaborating with researchers and experts from diverse linguistic backgrounds and domains can provide valuable insights and perspectives to enhance the model's capabilities across different tasks and languages. By implementing these approaches, researchers can work towards developing more equitable and inclusive large language models that perform effectively across a wide range of language families and tasks.

What novel approaches or architectures could be explored to improve the multilingual and multimodal capabilities of large language models beyond the current state-of-the-art?

To improve the multilingual and multimodal capabilities of large language models beyond the current state-of-the-art, the following novel approaches and architectures could be explored: Multimodal Fusion Techniques: Developing advanced fusion techniques that effectively combine textual and visual information can enhance the model's understanding of multimodal inputs and improve performance on tasks requiring both modalities. Dynamic Prompting Strategies: Exploring dynamic prompting strategies that adapt to the language or modality of the input data can help the model better handle multilingual and multimodal scenarios and improve overall performance. Cross-Lingual Knowledge Transfer: Leveraging cross-lingual knowledge transfer techniques to transfer knowledge learned from one language to another can enhance the model's multilingual capabilities and improve performance on low-resource languages. Attention Mechanism Enhancements: Enhancing the attention mechanisms in the model to better capture cross-modal dependencies and relationships can improve the model's ability to process and generate outputs for multimodal inputs. Domain-Specific Fine-Tuning: Fine-tuning the model on domain-specific data across different languages and modalities can help tailor the model's capabilities to specific tasks and improve performance on diverse datasets. Meta-Learning and Few-Shot Learning: Exploring meta-learning and few-shot learning techniques to enable the model to quickly adapt to new languages and modalities with limited training data can enhance its generalization capabilities. By exploring these novel approaches and architectures, researchers can push the boundaries of multilingual and multimodal large language models and advance the state-of-the-art in natural language processing and artificial intelligence.
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