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Balanced and Entropy-based Mixing for Enhancing Long-Tailed Semi-Supervised Learning

Core Concepts
This paper introduces Balanced and Entropy-based Mix (BEM), a novel data mixing approach that re-balances both the class distribution of data quantity and uncertainty to enhance long-tailed semi-supervised learning.
The paper presents a novel data mixing method called Balanced and Entropy-based Mix (BEM) to address the challenges of long-tailed semi-supervised learning (LTSSL). Key highlights: Existing data mixing methods in semi-supervised learning (SSL) fail to address class imbalance, as they perform random mixing within a batch. This hinders a balanced class distribution, which is crucial for LTSSL. The paper identifies that class balance not only depends on data quantity, but also on class-wise uncertainty, which can be quantified by entropy. Previous LTSSL methods mainly focus on re-balancing data quantity but ignore class-wise uncertainty. BEM consists of two sub-modules: Class Balanced Mix Bank (CBMB): It re-balances data quantity through a proposed CamMix technique, guided by a class-balanced sampling function. Entropy-based Learning (EL): It further re-balances class-wise uncertainty using three techniques - entropy-based sampling strategy, entropy-based selection module, and entropy-based class balanced loss. Experiments show that BEM significantly enhances various LTSSL frameworks and achieves state-of-the-art performances across multiple benchmarks.
The paper presents the following key statistics: The class distribution of data quantity and entropy exhibit significant discrepancies across different settings, particularly for head and tail classes. Classes 3-6 exhibit the highest entropy, indicating greater uncertainty. BEM achieves average test accuracy gains of 11.8%, 4.4%, 1.4% and 2.5% over FixMatch, FixMatch+LA, FixMatch+ABC and FixMatch+ACR respectively on CIFAR10-LT.
"Unexpected discrepancies are observed across all settings between the distribution of data quantity and entropy, particularly for head and tail classes. Notably, classes 3-6 exhibit the highest entropy, indicating greater uncertainty." "Our BEM first leverages data mixing for improving LTSSL, and it can also serve as a complement to the existing re-balancing methods."

Key Insights Distilled From

by Hongwei Zhen... at 04-02-2024

Deeper Inquiries

How can the proposed BEM framework be extended to other domains beyond computer vision, such as natural language processing or speech recognition, where long-tailed distributions are also prevalent

The BEM framework can be extended to other domains beyond computer vision by adapting its core principles to suit the specific characteristics of those domains. In natural language processing (NLP), for example, long-tailed distributions are prevalent in tasks such as sentiment analysis, named entity recognition, and document classification. To apply BEM in NLP, the following adaptations can be considered: Data Mixing in Text Data: Instead of mixing image data, text data can be mixed by combining sentences or paragraphs from different classes to create diverse training samples. Entropy-based Sampling in Text: Class-wise uncertainty in text data can be quantified using metrics like perplexity or entropy of language models. Sampling strategies can then be designed based on this uncertainty to balance the training process. Class Balanced Mix Bank for Text: A class balanced mix bank can be created to store text samples from different classes, ensuring that the data quantity is balanced during training. Entropy-based Loss in NLP: The entropy-based class balanced loss can be adapted for NLP tasks by incorporating class-wise uncertainty into the loss function, similar to how it is done for image data in BEM. By customizing these components to suit the characteristics of NLP tasks, the BEM framework can be effectively extended to address long-tailed distributions in natural language processing.

What are the potential limitations of the entropy-based approach in BEM, and how could it be further improved to handle more challenging long-tailed scenarios where the class-wise uncertainty is highly complex

While the entropy-based approach in BEM is effective in capturing class-wise uncertainty, there are potential limitations that need to be considered: Complexity of Uncertainty: In highly complex long-tailed scenarios, class-wise uncertainty may not be adequately captured by entropy alone. Some classes may exhibit varying levels of uncertainty based on different factors, such as data quality, feature representation, or domain-specific challenges. Limited Information: Entropy provides a measure of uncertainty based on the distribution of predictions, but it may not capture all aspects of uncertainty in the data. Other factors like data overlap, noise in labels, or model confidence can also contribute to uncertainty. To improve the entropy-based approach in handling more challenging long-tailed scenarios, the following strategies can be considered: Multi-modal Uncertainty: Incorporating multiple measures of uncertainty, such as predictive entropy, data distribution entropy, and model confidence, can provide a more comprehensive understanding of class-wise uncertainty. Dynamic Uncertainty Estimation: Implementing adaptive methods to dynamically adjust the estimation of uncertainty based on the training progress or model performance can enhance the robustness of the entropy-based approach. Ensemble Uncertainty: Leveraging ensemble methods to combine predictions from multiple models can offer a more reliable estimation of uncertainty, especially in cases where individual models may struggle to capture complex uncertainty patterns. By addressing these limitations and incorporating advanced uncertainty estimation techniques, the entropy-based approach in BEM can be further improved to handle more challenging long-tailed scenarios effectively.

Given the versatility of BEM in enhancing various SSL learners, how could the framework be adapted to incorporate other advanced SSL techniques, such as consistency regularization or contrastive learning, to further boost the performance on long-tailed datasets

To adapt the BEM framework to incorporate other advanced SSL techniques and further boost performance on long-tailed datasets, the following strategies can be implemented: Consistency Regularization: Integrate consistency regularization techniques like consistency loss or virtual adversarial training into the BEM framework. By enforcing consistency between predictions on augmented samples, the model can learn more robust representations, especially for tail classes. Contrastive Learning: Incorporate contrastive learning methods like SimCLR or MoCo into BEM to learn discriminative representations in a self-supervised manner. By leveraging contrastive loss functions, the model can enhance feature discrimination, particularly for underrepresented classes. Meta-Learning: Explore meta-learning approaches within the BEM framework to adapt the model to different long-tailed datasets or distributions. By learning to quickly adapt to new class distributions, the model can improve generalization performance on diverse datasets. By combining the strengths of BEM with these advanced SSL techniques, the framework can achieve even greater performance gains on long-tailed datasets across various domains.