toplogo
Sign In

Optimizing Load Forecasting and Reserve Sizing for Power System Operations


Core Concepts
The core message of this paper is to present a new closed-loop framework, named application-driven learning, in which the best point forecasting model for load and reserves is defined according to a given application cost function that can be represented by a two-stage linear program with uncertainty on the right-hand side.
Abstract
The paper presents a new closed-loop framework, named application-driven learning, for optimizing load forecasting and reserve sizing in power system operations. The key aspects are: The framework embeds the application (decision-making) process into the estimation of the forecasting model parameters. This is done through a bilevel optimization problem where the upper level seeks to minimize the application cost, and the lower level solves an optimization problem to determine the optimal plan given the forecasts. The authors prove asymptotic convergence of the proposed method to the best possible forecasting model in terms of the expected application cost, under certain assumptions. Two solution methods are proposed: an exact MILP-based approach and a scalable heuristic method. The heuristic leverages the structure of the problem to enable efficient and parallel computations. The methodology is applied to the problem of scheduling energy and reserves in power systems. The proposed approach dynamically forecasts the load and defines the reserve requirements to minimize the expected dispatch cost in the long run. This provides a scientifically grounded alternative to the ad hoc procedures currently implemented in industry practices. Extensive numerical experiments using both synthetic and real data demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed application-driven learning framework compared to the traditional open-loop forecast-decision approach.
Stats
The paper does not provide specific numerical data, but it discusses the following key figures: Generation capacity (K) Dispatch costs or offers (c) Maximum up- and down-reserve capacities (r̄(up) and r̄(dn)) Up- and down-reserves costs (p(up) and p(dn)) Transmission line capacities (F) Network sensitivity matrix (B) Load-shed and spillage penalty costs (λLS and λSP)
Quotes
"There is relevant empirical evidence that system operators rely on ad hoc or out-of-market actions—and not just on reserves—to deal with uncertainty and cost asymmetry in power system operations." "Consequently, there is a potential and eminent benefit to be unlocked in real-world applications based on the traditional deterministic (forecast-decision) approach by closing the loop between the prediction and prescription steps." "The objective of this paper is to present a new closed-loop framework, named application-driven learning, in which the best point forecasting model is defined according to a given application cost function that can be represented by a two-stage linear program with uncertainty on the right-hand side."

Key Insights Distilled From

by Joaq... at arxiv.org 04-09-2024

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2102.13273.pdf
Application-Driven Learning

Deeper Inquiries

How can the proposed application-driven learning framework be extended to handle more complex decision-making models, such as stochastic programming or robust optimization, instead of the deterministic two-stage linear program considered in this paper

The proposed application-driven learning framework can be extended to handle more complex decision-making models by incorporating stochastic programming or robust optimization techniques. In stochastic programming, uncertainty in the input data can be explicitly modeled, allowing for a more robust decision-making process. This can be achieved by introducing probabilistic forecasts and optimizing decisions under different scenarios to account for uncertainty. The framework can be adapted to include scenario-based optimization or chance-constrained programming to address uncertainties in the decision-making process. Similarly, robust optimization techniques can be integrated into the framework to handle uncertainties in a more conservative manner. Robust optimization focuses on finding solutions that are resilient to variations in the input data, ensuring that the decisions made are robust against uncertainties. By incorporating robust optimization methods, the application-driven learning framework can provide more reliable and stable solutions in the face of uncertainty.

What are the potential challenges and limitations of applying the proposed methodology to other domains beyond power system operations, where the decision-making process may have different characteristics

When applying the proposed methodology to domains beyond power system operations, several challenges and limitations may arise. One potential challenge is the complexity and diversity of decision-making processes in different domains. Each domain may have unique characteristics, constraints, and objectives that need to be carefully considered when implementing the application-driven learning framework. Adapting the framework to different contexts may require significant customization and domain-specific knowledge to ensure its effectiveness. Another challenge is the availability and quality of data in other domains. The success of the application-driven learning framework relies heavily on the availability of historical data and accurate forecasts. In domains where data is scarce, noisy, or unreliable, the performance of the framework may be compromised. Additionally, the interpretability and explainability of the models generated by the framework may be crucial in certain domains, such as healthcare or finance, where decision-making processes are highly regulated and require transparency.

Can the application-driven learning framework be combined with advanced machine learning techniques, such as deep learning, to further improve the forecasting accuracy and the overall performance of the closed-loop system

The application-driven learning framework can be combined with advanced machine learning techniques, such as deep learning, to enhance forecasting accuracy and overall system performance. Deep learning models, with their ability to capture complex patterns and relationships in data, can be used to improve the forecasting models within the closed-loop system. By integrating deep learning algorithms for feature extraction and pattern recognition, the framework can generate more accurate and reliable forecasts. Furthermore, deep learning models can be used to optimize the forecasting process iteratively, learning from past data and continuously improving the forecasting accuracy. The combination of deep learning with the application-driven learning framework can lead to more adaptive and dynamic forecasting models that can adjust to changing conditions and uncertainties in real-time. However, it is essential to carefully design and train deep learning models to ensure their effectiveness and reliability within the closed-loop system.
0