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Multimodal and Multilingual Model for Sentiment Analysis of Tweets


Core Concepts
Developing a multimodal and multilingual model for accurate sentiment analysis of tweets by leveraging textual and visual features.
Abstract
The paper presents a comprehensive approach for enhancing existing unimodal Twitter sentiment datasets into a multimodal format, enabling the development of a multimodal and multilingual sentiment analysis model called M2SA. The key highlights are: The dataset curation process involved collecting and preprocessing Twitter sentiment datasets in 21 different languages, resulting in a final dataset of 143K data points. Baseline experiments were conducted using various text encoders (Multilingual-BERT, XLM-RoBERTa, XLM-RoBERTa-Sentiment-Multilingual) and vision encoders (CLIP, DINOv2) to evaluate the performance of unimodal and multimodal configurations. The results show that the combination of XLM-RoBERTa-Sentiment-Multilingual and CLIP (X-SM+C) achieved the best performance across many languages, highlighting the importance of domain-specific pre-trained models for sentiment analysis tasks. The inclusion of machine-translated instances for lower-resourced languages did not yield significant performance improvements, suggesting the need for better translation techniques to preserve the original context and meaning. The analysis of errors revealed challenges such as missing context, disputable labels, and figurative language, which require further research to improve the model's robustness.
Stats
"Tweets have emerged as a trendy medium through which individuals communicate and express their ideas and opinions." "The proliferation of social media platforms, including Twitter and YouTube, has led to a common practice of assessing content using several modalities." "The process of annotating supervised datasets for natural language processing (NLP) tasks is a labour-intensive endeavour requiring significant investment of time, financial resources, and effort." "The final dataset consists of 143K data points."
Quotes
"The primary focus in many domains of natural language processing (NLP) often revolves around higher-resourced languages. However, the challenge of processing lower-resourced languages remains unresolved." "This paper presents a straightforward approach for enhancing pre-existing publicly accessible datasets to conduct multimodal (image & text) sentiment analysis on Twitter called M2SA (Multimodal Multilingual Sentiment Analysis)." "Notably, our evaluations reveal that when comparing unimodal and multimodal configurations, using a sentiment-tuned large language model as a text encoder performs exceptionally well."

Key Insights Distilled From

by Gaur... at arxiv.org 04-03-2024

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2404.01753.pdf
M2SA

Deeper Inquiries

How can the model's performance be further improved for lower-resourced languages, beyond the use of machine translation?

To enhance the model's performance for lower-resourced languages beyond machine translation, several strategies can be implemented: Data Augmentation: Augmenting the existing dataset through techniques like back-translation, synonym replacement, or data synthesis can help increase the diversity and quantity of training data for these languages. Transfer Learning: Utilizing pre-trained models fine-tuned on a related task or language can provide a head start in learning the sentiment patterns specific to the target language. Domain Adaptation: Adapting the model to the specific domain of the social media data in the target language can improve its performance by aligning it with the nuances and characteristics of that domain. Active Learning: Implementing active learning techniques can help the model select the most informative instances for annotation, thereby optimizing the use of limited labeled data. Ensemble Methods: Combining predictions from multiple models trained on different subsets of data or using different architectures can help improve overall performance by leveraging diverse perspectives.

How can the model's robustness be improved to better handle challenges like missing context, disputable labels, and figurative language in social media data?

To enhance the model's robustness in handling challenges like missing context, disputable labels, and figurative language in social media data, the following strategies can be employed: Contextual Understanding: Implementing models that can capture context beyond individual tweets, such as conversation threads or user history, can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the content. Uncertainty Estimation: Incorporating uncertainty estimation techniques can help the model identify instances where it is unsure of the prediction, allowing for more cautious decision-making in ambiguous cases. Adversarial Training: Training the model with adversarial examples that mimic challenging scenarios can improve its resilience to noise, ambiguity, and figurative language. Human-in-the-Loop: Integrating human annotators or reviewers in the model's prediction pipeline can help resolve disputable labels and provide additional context where automated systems fall short. Multi-Modal Fusion: Incorporating additional modalities like audio or video data alongside text can provide supplementary cues for sentiment analysis, enhancing the model's ability to interpret figurative language and context.

What other modalities, such as audio or video, could be incorporated to enhance the multimodal sentiment analysis capabilities of the model?

Incorporating additional modalities like audio or video can significantly enhance the multimodal sentiment analysis capabilities of the model: Audio Modality: Analyzing audio data can capture nuances in tone, intonation, and emotional cues that are not present in text alone. Speech sentiment analysis can provide valuable insights into the speaker's emotions and sentiments. Video Modality: Analyzing facial expressions, body language, and visual context in videos can offer rich information for sentiment analysis. Visual cues like gestures, facial expressions, and scene context can provide additional context for understanding sentiment. Speech Recognition: Converting spoken language into text through speech recognition can enable the model to analyze sentiment from spoken content, such as podcasts, interviews, or video transcripts. Emotion Recognition: Incorporating emotion recognition techniques can help identify underlying emotions in audio or video content, providing a deeper understanding of sentiment beyond textual analysis. Multimodal Fusion: Integrating features from multiple modalities (text, audio, video) through fusion techniques like late fusion, early fusion, or cross-modal attention mechanisms can enable the model to leverage the strengths of each modality for more comprehensive sentiment analysis.
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