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Efficient Deep Unfolding Network with Hybrid-Attention Transformer for Large-Scale Single-Pixel Imaging


Core Concepts
A deep unfolding network with hybrid-attention Transformer, dubbed HATNet, is proposed to efficiently reconstruct high-fidelity images from single-pixel measurements by exploiting the Kronecker structure of the single-pixel imaging model.
Abstract
The content discusses a deep learning-based approach for single-pixel imaging (SPI) reconstruction. SPI is a computational imaging technique that produces images by solving an ill-posed reconstruction problem from few measurements captured by a single-pixel detector. The key highlights are: The authors propose a deep unfolding network with hybrid-attention Transformer, dubbed HATNet, to improve the imaging quality of real SPI cameras. HATNet unfolds the computation graph of the iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (ISTA) into two alternative modules: efficient tensor gradient descent and hybrid-attention multi-scale denoising. By exploiting the Kronecker structure of the SPI model, the gradient descent module can avoid the high computational overheads associated with previous gradient descent modules based on vectorized SPI. The denoising module is an encoder-decoder architecture powered by dual-scale spatial attention for high- and low-frequency aggregation and channel attention for global information recalibration. Extensive experiments on synthetic and real data demonstrate that the proposed HATNet achieves state-of-the-art performance, outperforming previous methods in terms of both simulation metrics and real-world SPI reconstruction. The authors also build a SPI prototype to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Stats
The authors report the following key figures: A 512 × 512 image needs a measurement matrix A with 262,144 columns in the vectorized CS form, leading to extremely high computational cost. The proposed HATNet reduces the GPU memory occupation from 10.74 G to 3.02 G and the inference time from 0.55 s to 0.38 s compared to the vectorized SPI approach.
Quotes
"To bridge the gap between SPI and DUNs, we propose a deep unfolding network with hybrid-attention Transformer, dubbed HATNet, on Kronecker SPI [11] by unrolling the computation graph of ISTA into two alternative modules: efficient gradient descent and HAT-based denoising." "By virtue of Kronecker SPI, the gradient descent module can avoid high computational overheads rooted in previous gradient descent modules based on vectorized SPI."

Key Insights Distilled From

by Gang Qu,Ping... at arxiv.org 04-09-2024

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2404.05001.pdf
Dual-Scale Transformer for Large-Scale Single-Pixel Imaging

Deeper Inquiries

How can the proposed HATNet be extended to handle color single-pixel imaging or other computational imaging modalities beyond SPI

To extend the proposed HATNet for color single-pixel imaging or other computational imaging modalities beyond SPI, several modifications and enhancements can be considered: Color Imaging: For color single-pixel imaging, the HATNet architecture can be adapted to handle multiple color channels. This can involve modifying the input and output layers to accommodate RGB or other color spaces. Additionally, the deep denoiser component can be adjusted to process color information effectively. Multi-Modal Imaging: To handle other computational imaging modalities, the network can be expanded to incorporate different types of measurements or sensing modalities. This may require changes in the measurement matrices and the reconstruction process to suit the specific characteristics of the new modality. Transfer Learning: Leveraging transfer learning techniques, the pre-trained HATNet model for SPI can be fine-tuned on new datasets from different imaging modalities. This approach can help adapt the network to new data distributions and imaging characteristics. Hybrid Architectures: Developing hybrid architectures that combine the strengths of HATNet with domain-specific models or components can enhance the network's capability to handle diverse imaging modalities effectively. By incorporating these strategies, the HATNet framework can be extended to address color single-pixel imaging and other computational imaging modalities beyond SPI.

What are the potential limitations of the Kronecker SPI model and how can they be addressed in future work

The Kronecker SPI model, while offering advantages in reducing computational costs and memory requirements, may have certain limitations that could be addressed in future work: Resolution Limitations: The Kronecker SPI model may face challenges in handling high-resolution images due to the increased size of the measurement matrices. Future work could explore techniques to optimize the model for higher resolutions without compromising reconstruction quality. Noise Sensitivity: Kronecker SPI may be sensitive to noise and artifacts, especially in real-world imaging scenarios. Developing robust denoising strategies or incorporating noise-aware components into the reconstruction process can help mitigate these issues. Generalization: Ensuring the generalization of the Kronecker SPI model across different imaging conditions, lighting scenarios, and object types is crucial. Future research could focus on enhancing the model's adaptability and performance in diverse settings. Scalability: Scaling the Kronecker SPI model to handle large-scale imaging applications efficiently is another area for improvement. Exploring parallel processing techniques or distributed computing frameworks can aid in scaling the model effectively. By addressing these limitations through advanced algorithmic enhancements and model optimizations, the Kronecker SPI model can be further refined for enhanced performance and applicability.

What other types of attention mechanisms or transformer architectures could be explored to further improve the performance of deep unfolding networks for single-pixel imaging reconstruction

To further improve the performance of deep unfolding networks for single-pixel imaging reconstruction, exploring different types of attention mechanisms and transformer architectures can be beneficial: Cross-Modal Attention: Introducing cross-modal attention mechanisms that can effectively capture correlations between different modalities or imaging domains can enhance the network's ability to extract meaningful features and improve reconstruction quality. Sparse Attention: Incorporating sparse attention mechanisms can help the network focus on relevant image regions or features, leading to more efficient and accurate reconstructions, especially in scenarios with sparse or localized information. Temporal Attention: For dynamic imaging applications, integrating temporal attention mechanisms can enable the network to leverage temporal dependencies in sequential data, enhancing the reconstruction of time-varying scenes or videos. Hierarchical Transformers: Implementing hierarchical transformer architectures that combine multiple levels of abstraction and context modeling can improve the network's understanding of complex image structures and relationships, leading to more precise and detailed image reconstruction. By exploring these advanced attention mechanisms and transformer architectures, deep unfolding networks can achieve higher reconstruction accuracy, robustness, and adaptability for single-pixel imaging and other computational imaging tasks.
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