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Optimal Spatio-Temporal Descriptor for Generalizable Video Recognition


Core Concepts
To address the semantic gap between web-scaled descriptive narratives and concise action category names, we propose to disentangle category names into Spatio-Temporal Descriptors using large language models. We further introduce Optimal Descriptor Solver to adaptively align frame-level representations with the refined textual knowledge, enabling generalizable video recognition.
Abstract
The paper proposes a novel pipeline called Optimal Spatio-Temporal Descriptor (OST) for video recognition. The key insights are: The semantic space of video category names is less distinct compared to image datasets, which may hinder video recognition performance. To address this, the authors disentangle category names into Spatio-Temporal Descriptors using large language models. Spatio Descriptors capture static visual cues, while Temporal Descriptors describe the temporal evolution of actions. To fully refine the textual knowledge, the authors introduce Optimal Descriptor Solver. It forms the video-text matching problem as an optimal transport problem, adaptively aligning frame-level representations with the generated descriptors. Comprehensive evaluations on six benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed OST pipeline. It achieves state-of-the-art performance in zero-shot, few-shot, and fully-supervised video recognition settings.
Stats
"Ski ramp", "Snow-covered mountain", "Ski jumper in mid-air", "Ski jumper in a graceful pose" "Prepare for the jump", "Start the approach", "Take off from the ramp", "Perform aerial maneuvers"
Quotes
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Key Insights Distilled From

by Tongjia Chen... at arxiv.org 03-29-2024

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2312.00096.pdf
OST

Deeper Inquiries

How can the proposed Spatio-Temporal Descriptors be further improved to capture more comprehensive semantic information

The proposed Spatio-Temporal Descriptors can be further improved by incorporating more contextual information and fine-grained details. One way to enhance these descriptors is to leverage hierarchical representations that capture both high-level semantic concepts and low-level visual details. By integrating multi-scale features, the descriptors can better represent the complex interactions between different elements in the video frames. Additionally, incorporating attention mechanisms can help focus on relevant regions in the video frames, allowing the descriptors to capture more comprehensive semantic information. Furthermore, exploring self-supervised learning techniques to pre-train the descriptors on a large unlabeled video dataset can improve their ability to encode rich semantic information.

What are the potential limitations of the Optimal Descriptor Solver, and how can it be extended to handle more complex video-text matching scenarios

The Optimal Descriptor Solver may have limitations in handling more complex video-text matching scenarios, such as cases where the semantic gap between the video content and textual descriptions is significant. To address this, the solver can be extended by incorporating a more sophisticated alignment mechanism that considers not only the visual and textual similarities but also the contextual relationships between different elements in the video and text. Additionally, introducing a feedback mechanism that iteratively refines the matching process based on the feedback from the recognition results can enhance the solver's adaptability to diverse video-text matching scenarios. Moreover, integrating domain-specific knowledge or domain adaptation techniques can help the solver generalize better to new domains or tasks.

How can the insights from this work be applied to other cross-modal tasks beyond video recognition, such as video-language understanding or video-based question answering

The insights from this work can be applied to other cross-modal tasks beyond video recognition, such as video-language understanding or video-based question answering, by adapting the Spatio-Temporal Descriptors and Optimal Descriptor Solver to these tasks. For video-language understanding, the Spatio-Temporal Descriptors can be used to bridge the semantic gap between videos and textual descriptions, enabling more effective cross-modal matching. The Optimal Descriptor Solver can be tailored to handle the specific requirements of video-language tasks, such as aligning video frames with textual prompts or generating coherent video-text embeddings. Similarly, for video-based question answering, the insights from this work can inform the design of models that leverage both visual and textual information to answer questions about video content accurately. By customizing the Spatio-Temporal Descriptors and Optimal Descriptor Solver for these tasks, researchers can improve the performance and generalizability of cross-modal models in various applications.
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