toplogo
로그인

Limitations of Large Language Models in Handling Simple Linguistic Inferences


핵심 개념
Large language models exhibit significant limitations in handling simple linguistic inferences that are trivial for humans, including grammatically-specified entailments, monotonicity entailments, and inferences involving evidential adverbs of uncertainty.
요약
The authors evaluate the language understanding capabilities of large language models (LLMs) on simple inference tasks that most humans find trivial. Specifically, they target: Grammatically-specified entailments: Replacing a constituent of the premise with an indefinite pronoun. Premises with evidential adverbs of uncertainty: Adverbs that block the entailment of the rest of the clause. Monotonicity entailments: Upward (from subsets to supersets) and downward (from supersets to subsets). The authors design evaluation sets for these tasks and conduct experiments in both zero-shot and chain-of-thought setups, with multiple prompts and LLMs. The results show that the models exhibit moderate to low performance on these evaluation sets. Further experiments reveal that embedding the premise in syntactic constructions that should preserve the entailment relations (presupposition triggers) or change them (non-factives) further confuses the models, causing them to either under-predict or over-predict certain entailment labels regardless of the true relation, and often disregarding the nature of the embedding context. Overall, the results suggest that despite LLMs' celebrated language understanding capacity, even the strongest models have blindspots with respect to certain types of entailments, and certain information-packaging structures act as "blinds" overshadowing the semantics of the embedded premise.
통계
Her brother was singing entails Someone was singing. Fred's tie is very long implies Fred's tie is long, but not vice versa.
인용문
None

에서 추출된 주요 통찰력

by Victoria Bas... 위치 arxiv.org 04-12-2024

https://arxiv.org/pdf/2305.14785.pdf
Simple Linguistic Inferences of Large Language Models (LLMs)

심층적인 질문

How do the limitations of LLMs in handling simple linguistic inferences relate to their performance on more complex natural language understanding tasks?

The limitations of LLMs in handling simple linguistic inferences can have significant implications for their performance on more complex natural language understanding tasks. These simple linguistic inferences, such as grammatically-specified entailments and monotonicity entailments, serve as foundational building blocks for more complex language understanding. If LLMs struggle with these basic tasks, it indicates a lack of robust understanding of fundamental linguistic principles. This can lead to errors and inaccuracies in more complex tasks that require a deeper comprehension of language nuances and relationships. For example, if an LLM fails to correctly identify the entailment between "Jack is a dog" and "Jack is an animal" in a simple scenario, it may struggle with more complex tasks that involve reasoning, inference, and context-dependent understanding. This can impact the model's ability to accurately interpret and generate text, answer questions, or engage in dialogue where a nuanced understanding of language is crucial. In essence, the limitations observed in handling simple linguistic inferences can serve as indicators of potential challenges in more complex natural language understanding tasks, highlighting the need for further improvement and refinement in LLMs' language capabilities.

What architectural or training modifications could help LLMs overcome their blindspots in understanding grammatically-specified entailments, monotonicity entailments, and inferences involving evidential adverbs?

To help LLMs overcome their blindspots in understanding grammatically-specified entailments, monotonicity entailments, and inferences involving evidential adverbs, several architectural or training modifications can be considered: Explicit Training on Linguistic Phenomena: Incorporating specific training objectives that focus on grammatically-specified entailments, monotonicity entailments, and evidential adverbs can help LLMs learn these linguistic concepts more effectively. Fine-tuning with Diverse Data: Training LLMs on diverse datasets that contain a wide range of examples showcasing these linguistic phenomena can improve their ability to generalize and understand different types of inferences. Architectural Adjustments: Modifying the architecture of LLMs to include specialized modules or mechanisms that explicitly address grammatical entailments, monotonicity relationships, and uncertainty inferences can enhance their performance on these tasks. Prompt Engineering: Designing prompts that specifically target these linguistic phenomena and guide the model towards the correct understanding can also be beneficial in improving their accuracy. Multi-Task Learning: Incorporating multi-task learning approaches where the model is trained on a variety of tasks, including those related to linguistic inferences, can help enhance its overall language understanding capabilities. By implementing these modifications, LLMs can potentially overcome their blindspots and improve their performance on tasks involving grammatically-specified entailments, monotonicity entailments, and evidential adverbs.

What other types of linguistic phenomena, beyond the ones explored in this study, might reveal additional limitations in the language understanding capabilities of current LLMs?

Beyond the linguistic phenomena explored in the study, several other types of linguistic phenomena could reveal additional limitations in the language understanding capabilities of current LLMs. Some examples include: Lexical Ambiguity: LLMs may struggle with resolving lexical ambiguity, where a word or phrase has multiple meanings or interpretations based on context. This can pose challenges in tasks requiring precise word sense disambiguation. Anaphora Resolution: Resolving anaphoric references, such as pronouns or demonstratives, to their antecedents accurately can be a complex task that tests the model's coreference resolution abilities. Temporal Reasoning: Understanding and reasoning about temporal relationships, events, and sequences in text can be challenging for LLMs, especially in tasks that require temporal ordering or understanding of timelines. Metaphor Interpretation: Interpreting metaphors and figurative language poses a challenge for LLMs as it requires understanding non-literal meanings and abstract concepts beyond surface-level language. Irony and Sarcasm Detection: Detecting and understanding irony, sarcasm, and other forms of figurative speech can be difficult for LLMs due to the nuanced and context-dependent nature of these linguistic phenomena. By exploring these and other linguistic phenomena, researchers can uncover additional limitations in LLMs' language understanding capabilities and work towards developing more robust and accurate models for natural language processing tasks.
0