TEMPO: A Prompt-Based Generative Pre-Trained Transformer for Robust Time Series Forecasting

핵심 개념
TEMPO, a novel framework that can effectively learn time series representations by utilizing two essential inductive biases: (i) decomposition of the complex interaction between trend, seasonal and residual components; and (ii) introducing the design of prompts to facilitate distribution adaptation in different types of time series.
The paper proposes TEMPO, a prompt-based generative pre-trained transformer for time series forecasting. TEMPO consists of two key components: Modeling time series patterns: TEMPO decomposes the time series input into trend, seasonality, and residual components using locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (STL). Each component is then mapped to its corresponding hidden space to construct the time series input embedding. Prompt-based adaptation: TEMPO utilizes a soft prompt to efficiently tune the GPT for forecasting tasks. The prompt encodes temporal knowledge of trend and seasonality, guiding the reuse of this information. The authors conduct a formal analysis, bridging time series and frequency domains, to highlight the necessity of decomposing time series components. They also theoretically show that the attention mechanism alone may not be able to disentangle the trend and seasonal signals automatically. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets and two multimodal datasets (GDELT and TETS) demonstrate TEMPO's superior performance in zero-shot and multimodal settings, highlighting its potential as a foundational model for time series forecasting. The paper also provides an interpretable framework for understanding the interactions among the input components using a generalized additive model (GAM) and SHAP values.
The trend component XT captures the underlying long-term pattern in the data. The seasonal component XS encapsulates the repeating short-term cycles. The residual component XR represents the remainder of the data after the trend and seasonality have been extracted.
"TEMPO expands the capability for dynamically modeling real-world temporal phenomena from data within diverse domains." "Our experiments demonstrate the superior performance of TEMPO over state-of-the-art methods on zero shot setting for a number of time series benchmark datasets." "This performance gain is observed not only in scenarios involving previously unseen datasets but also in scenarios with multi-modal inputs."

핵심 통찰 요약

by Defu Cao,Fur... 게시일 04-03-2024

더 깊은 질문

How can TEMPO's prompt-based approach be extended to handle more complex temporal patterns, such as multiple seasonalities or non-stationary trends

To extend TEMPO's prompt-based approach to handle more complex temporal patterns, such as multiple seasonalities or non-stationary trends, several strategies can be implemented: Adaptive Prompt Design: Develop a more sophisticated prompt design that can dynamically adjust to different temporal patterns. This could involve creating prompts specific to each type of seasonality or trend, allowing the model to focus on different aspects of the data based on the context. Hierarchical Prompting: Implement a hierarchical prompting system where the model receives prompts at different levels of granularity. This would enable the model to capture both overarching trends and more nuanced seasonal variations simultaneously. Prompt Fusion: Introduce a mechanism for fusing prompts related to different temporal patterns. By combining prompts that address multiple seasonalities or trends, the model can learn to interpret complex interactions between these components more effectively. Temporal Attention Mechanisms: Incorporate attention mechanisms that can dynamically adjust the focus of the model based on the temporal patterns present in the data. This would allow the model to allocate more attention to specific components as needed.

What are the potential limitations of TEMPO's reliance on STL decomposition, and how could alternative decomposition techniques be integrated to further improve its performance

While STL decomposition is a powerful tool for extracting trend, seasonality, and residual components from time series data, it does have some limitations that could impact TEMPO's performance: Assumption of Additivity: STL assumes that the components (trend, seasonality, and residual) are additive, which may not always hold true in real-world data. Alternative decomposition techniques that relax this assumption, such as Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) or Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), could be integrated to capture more complex interactions between components. Handling Non-Linear Relationships: STL is based on linear decomposition, which may not capture non-linear relationships within the data. Techniques like Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) or Independent Component Analysis (ICA) could be explored to address this limitation and improve the model's ability to capture intricate temporal patterns. Robustness to Outliers: STL decomposition may be sensitive to outliers in the data, leading to inaccuracies in the extracted components. Robust decomposition methods like Robust PCA or Robust STL could be considered to enhance the model's resilience to outliers and improve overall performance. Integrating these alternative decomposition techniques into TEMPO could help overcome the limitations of STL and enhance the model's capability to handle diverse and complex temporal patterns.

Given the promising results on multimodal datasets, how could TEMPO's architecture be adapted to leverage additional modalities, such as images or text, to enhance time series forecasting in real-world applications

To adapt TEMPO's architecture to leverage additional modalities like images or text for enhancing time series forecasting in real-world applications, the following modifications could be considered: Multimodal Fusion: Implement fusion mechanisms, such as Multi-Modal Transformers or Cross-Modal Attention, to effectively combine information from different modalities. This would enable the model to leverage the complementary nature of diverse data sources for more accurate predictions. Modality-Specific Embeddings: Incorporate separate embedding layers for each modality to capture modality-specific features effectively. These embeddings can then be integrated into the model's architecture to provide a comprehensive representation of the data. Contextual Information Integration: Develop mechanisms to incorporate contextual information from text data into the forecasting process. This could involve pre-processing text data to extract relevant features and using them as additional inputs to the model. Transfer Learning: Explore transfer learning techniques to leverage pre-trained models on text or image data and fine-tune them for time series forecasting tasks. This approach can help the model benefit from the knowledge learned from large-scale datasets in other domains. By integrating these adaptations, TEMPO can effectively leverage additional modalities to enhance its forecasting capabilities and address the complexities of real-world applications.